The localization of deformation during a plastic deformation process influences ductility by altering the structural characteristics and material properties in the narrow area of localized deformation. This leads to the appearance of cracks in that area, either during the plastic deformation operation or throughout the use of the deformed piece. The localization of deformation or flow during deformation is the common cause of the formation of a ‘dead zone’ between the deformed semifinished product and the deformation tool. The localization of deformation can be caused by: reduced lubrication at the tool-semifinished product contact surface, uneven temperature distribution, structural non-uniformity.

Lubricants for Metal Forming:
– Non-emulsifiable oils for forming and general machining
– Soluble oils for metal forming
– Evaporative oils that leave a protective antioxidant film after evaporation
– Total evaporative forming oils

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